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Stool 60
Iconic Designs

Stool 60

About the Design

Although Finnish architect and furniture maker Alvar Aalto (1898–1976) was recognized early in his career for his decorative interiors and innovative building concepts, his functional wood furniture reflected a simplicity that extended even to his marketing copy. “One chair is enough” is one such slogan attributed to him today. While the renowned designs he produced with his first wife Aino for a tuberculosis sanatorium in Paimio included tubular steel, Aalto eventually distanced himself from the material, differing from peers such as Marcel Breuer in that he favored working with organic materials, having deemed wood “form-inspiring” and “deeply human.” The stackable Stool 60, made of cost-effective solid birch and birch plywood, is emblematic of that approach.


In the mid- to late-1920s, with the support of fellow woodworker Otto Korhonen at a furniture factory in Turku, Finland — a densely forested country where birch trees and lumber suppliers are plentiful — Aalto developed the “bent-knee” technique for making furniture. It involves a solid piece of birch soaked and softened in water and then sawed open in the direction of the wood grain. Afterward, thin slats of wood are glued into the grooves, and the wood is heated so that it becomes malleable. The bent-knee process, which has changed little since its inception, yielded the “L-leg” that Aalto initially had in mind for his Stool 60. Three L-legs were mounted to the underside of the flat, circular plywood seat of the Stool 60 in the Turku factory, but Aalto’s innovation had applications for tables and a lot more. The furniture maker called the L-leg “the little sister of the architectural column.”


When the first prototype of the deceptively simplistic-looking Stool 60 materialized, Aalto and Korhonen tossed the piece across the sprawling factory floor to test its durability. Aalto told all in earshot, “We’ll make thousands of these one day!” It was a fairly modest prediction: Debuting at an exhibition of Finnish design in 1933, the Stool 60 was a revolutionary piece of seating furniture, and it has sold millions.


It is now available with seats in various colors and is part of the permanent collection at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. The library for which the stool was first intended won the World Monuments Fund/Knoll Modernism Prize in 2014. The Stool 60 is currently manufactured by Artek, which the Aaltos helped cofound, and it is one of the company’s most cherished products.


Alvar Aalto Stool 60

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Pair of Alvar Aalto Finsven #60 Stacking Stools, 1930s
By Finsven, Alvar Aalto
Located in Bainbridge, NY
Early Alvar Aalto for Finsven model 60 beech and birch nesting tables. With reinforced tripod bentwood legs. Measures: 13 D seat. Classic. Modernist. Rarity. Finsven label to undersi...
Category

Vintage 1930s Finnish Art Deco Stools

Materials

Beech, Birch

Alvar Aalto, Mid-Century Modern, Artek Bentwood Stool, circa 1960
By Alvar Aalto, Artek
Located in Barcelona, Barcelona
Stool designed by Alvar Aalto, circa 1960. Manufactured by Artek (Finland). Wood legs and structure. In great original condition, with minor wear consistent with age and use, ...
Category

Vintage 1950s Finnish Mid-Century Modern Stools

Materials

Wood

Alvar Aalto, Mid-Century Modern, Artek Bentwood Stool, circa 1960
By Alvar Aalto, Artek
Located in Barcelona, Barcelona
Stool designed by Alvar Aalto, circa 1960. Manufactured by Artek (Finland). Wood legs and structure. In great original condition, with minor wear consistent with age and use, ...
Category

Vintage 1950s Finnish Mid-Century Modern Stools

Materials

Wood

Alvar Aalto Stool, circa 1960
By Alvar Aalto, Artek
Located in Barcelona, Barcelona
Stool designed by Alvar Aalto, circa 1960. Manufactured by Artek (Finland). Wood legs and structure. In great original condition, with minor wear consistent with age and use, ...
Category

Vintage 1960s Finnish Mid-Century Modern Stools

Materials

Wood

Alvar Aalto Stool in Leather for Artek, circa 1960
By Alvar Aalto
Located in Barcelona, Barcelona
Stool designed by Alvar Aalto, circa 1960. Manufactured by Artek (Finland). New leather top, wood legs and structure. In great original condition, with minor wear consistent wit...
Category

Vintage 1960s Finnish Mid-Century Modern Stools

Materials

Leather, Wood

Alvar Aalto Stool for Artek, circa 1960
By Alvar Aalto
Located in Barcelona, Barcelona
Stool designed by Alvar Aalto, circa 1960. Manufactured by Artek (Finland) Leather top, wood legs and structure. In great original condition, with minor wear consistent with age...
Category

Vintage 1960s Finnish Mid-Century Modern Stools

Materials

Leather, Wood

Alvar Aalto Stool for Artek, circa 1960
By Alvar Aalto, Artek
Located in Barcelona, Barcelona
Stool designed by Alvar Aalto, circa 1960. Manufactured by Artek (Finland). Wood legs and structure. In great original condition, with minor wear consistent with age and use, ...
Category

Vintage 1960s Finnish Mid-Century Modern Stools

Materials

Wood

Alvar Aalto Mid-Century Modern Wood Stool for Artek, circa 1960
By Alvar Aalto
Located in Barcelona, Barcelona
Stool designed by Alvar Aalto, circa 1960. Manufactured by Artek (Finland) Wood legs and structure. In good original condition, with minor wear consistent with age and use, pres...
Category

Vintage 1960s Spanish Mid-Century Modern Stools

Materials

Bentwood

Vintage 1930s Model 60 stool by Alvar Aalto for Finmar
By Alvar Aalto
Located in London, London
Model 60 stool By Alvar Aalto for Artek Distributed in London by Finmar Birch Seat is 35cm diameter (Up until recently) labelled with Finmar tag 1930s, Finland.
Category

Early 20th Century Finnish Mid-Century Modern Stools

Materials

Birch

Stool by Alvar Aalto for Artek, 2007
By Alvar Aalto
Located in Brussels, BE
Stool by Alvar Aalto for Artek, 2007.
Category

Early 2000s Finnish Stools

Materials

Birch

Alvar Aalto, Stacking Stool, Designed 1933, Beautiful Early Example
By Alvar Aalto
Located in London, GB
Alvar Aalto. Manufactured by Oy Huonekalu-Ja Rakennustyo¨tedas, Finland. Model 60 stool, designed 1933. Birch and birch plywood. Original early version in good un-restored co...
Category

Vintage 1930s Finnish Modern Stools

Materials

Birch

Alvar Aalto for Artek Finland Stacking Stools Model 60
By Alvar Aalto
Located in Las Vegas, NV
Set of three Alvar Aalto for Artek of Finland stacking stools model 60. Original two-tone dark stained legs with birch banded top and tan formica top. One is stamped Alvar Aalto Ar...
Category

Mid-20th Century Mid-Century Modern Stools

Upholstered Stool 60, Alvar / Aino Aalto, Artek, Finland, circa 1940
By Alvar Aalto
Located in Ghent, BE
Stool 60 designed by Alvar Aalto in 1933. Manufactured by Artek. The chair is marked with a stamp "AALTO DESIGN Made in Finland". This stamp refers to a rare pre-war Finnish Artek p...
Category

Vintage 1930s Finnish Mid-Century Modern Stools

Materials

Bentwood

Five Stacking Stools, Model 60, by Alvar Aalto, Designed in 1933
By Alvar Aalto
Located in Stockholm, SE
Five stacking chairs in beech, model 60 designed by Alvar Aalto in 1933.
Category

Vintage 1930s Finnish Mid-Century Modern Stools

Materials

Beech