Charles François Daubigny Black and White Photograph - La Machine hydraulique (The Hydraulic Machine).
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Charles François Daubigny
La Machine hydraulique (The Hydraulic Machine).

1862

About

La Machine hydraulique (The Hydraulic Machine). 1862. Original cliché-verre. Delteil, Melot 147. Delteil 147. 8 3/8 x 13 1/2 (sheet 11 x 14). Edition 150, #85. A posthumous impression from the 1921 edition of 150 printed in Paris by Sagot-Le Garrec on photo-sensitive vellum paper, with their violet seal verso (Lugt 1766a). Signed in the plate. A fascinating historical image. Housed in a 16x 20-inch archival mat, suitable for framing. Benoît Fourneyron (October 31, 1802 - July 31, 1867) was a French engineer, born in Saint-Étienne, Loire. Fourneyron made significant contributions to the development of water turbines. He was educated at the École Nationale Supeérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne, a nearby engineering school that had recently opened. After he graduated in 1816, he spent the next few years in mines and ironworks. Around this time, a number of French engineers, including some of Fourneyron's former teachers—were starting to apply the mathematical techniques of modern science to the ancient mechanism called the waterwheel. For centuries, waterwheels had been used to convert the energy of streams into mechanical power, mostly for milling grain. But the new machines of the Industrial Revolution required more power, and by the 1820s there was enormous interest in making waterwheels more efficient. Using the proposal of a former teacher (Claude Burdin) as a guide, Fourneyron built in 1827, at age of 25, his first prototype for a new type of waterwheel, called a "turbine". (The term turbine is derived from the Latin word for a spinning top). In Fourneyron's design, the wheel was horizontal, unlike the vertical wheels in traditional waterwheels. This 6 horsepower (4.5 kW) turbine used two sets of blades, curved in opposite directions, to get as much power as possible from the water's motion. Fourneyron won a 6,000 franc prize offered by the French Society for the Encouragement of Industry for the development of the first commercial hydraulic turbine. Over the next decade, Fourneyron built bigger and better turbines, learning from his mistakes after each new model. By 1837, Fourneyron had produced a turbine capable of 2,300 revolutions per minute, 80 percent efficiency, and 60 horsepower, with a wheel a foot in diameter and weighing only 40 pounds (18 kilograms). Besides its more obvious advantages over the waterwheel, Fourneyron's turbine could be installed as a horizontal wheel with a vertical shaft. It achieved immediate international success, powering industry in continental Europe and in the United States, notably the New England textile industry. But the real significance of the invention did not emerge until 1895, when Fourneyron turbines were installed on the American side of Niagara Falls to turn generators for electric-power production. Fourneyron perceived the potential of steam-driven turbines, but his attempts to make a satisfactory steam turbine were thwarted by the inadequacy of available materials and workmanship. Translated from French, 'cliché-verre' means glass picture. The 19th-century French painters Corot, Millet, Daubigny, and others, used this method of making pictures, which involves creating a handmade negative. These artists took pieces of flat glass, smoked them with a lit candle, and drew images in the soot-covered surface with a sharp pointed instrument. Then they would place the glass over a sheet of photographic paper and expose it to light. When light passes through the clear parts of the glass that is scratched, it produces a line drawing in black on a white background. Contact prints made from these negatives have a wonderful sense of belonging to the realms of both drawing and photography. The shot glass holds, by its very nature, both drawing, printmaking and photography. But it is above all a process of multiplication of the image based on the early days of photography. The cliché-verre is a printing process by photographic means, from a negative to done manually and by glass artist. The plate is first coated with a thick layer of collodion where the artist draws with a tip about it. The route passes through the translucent glass. The draw is obtained by the action of light passing through the glass and mark the photo-sensitive paper, which is then found and fixed. This technique, midway between printmaking and photography was invented in the 1850s by Constant Dutilleux and his son Charles Desavary.

Details

  • Dimensions
    H 16 in. x W 20 in. x D .5 in.H 40.64 cm x W 50.8 cm x D 1.27 cm
  • Gallery Location
    Storrs, CT
  • Reference Number
    LU33523764611
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About the Seller

5 / 5
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Located in Storrs, CT
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